Montessory schools are all schools where have educational approach developed by Italian physician and educator Mana Montessori and characterized by an emphasis on independence, freedom, within limits and also respect for child’s natural psychological, social and physical development. Although a range of practices exist under this name, the Association Montessori Internationale or just AMI and the American Montessori Society also known as AMS cite the following elements as essential. The first one is mixed age classrooms with classroom for children age three to six years old by far the most common. The second one is student choice of activity from within a prescribed range of options  a constructivist or discovery model where students learn concepts from working with materials rather than by direct instruction and uninterrupted blocks or work time ideally three hours are also available. Freedom of movement within the classroom and a trained Montessori teacher are two of the other options. Finally the last element is specialized educational materials developed by both Montessori and her collaborators. In addition to this many a lot of Montessori schools design their programs with reference to Montessori’s model of human development from the published works and use things such as lessons, pedagogy and introduced materials in teacher training.

Montessory schools

 

                The history of Montessori education begins when Maria Montessori started to develop her  philosophy and methods in 1897, attending courses in pedagogy in the University of Rome and reading the educational theory of the previous 200 years. She opened her first classroom in 1907 in a tenement building in Rome. Montessori based from the beginning her work on her observations of children and experimentation with the environment, materials and lessons available to them. There are four plans which are designed about Montessori schools. The first one extends from birth to around six years of age. Montessori observed during this period that the child undergoes striking both psychological and physical development. The first plan child is seen as a concrete sensorial learner and explorer engaged in the developmental work or psychological self – construction and building functional independence. The second plan extends from around 6 to 12 years old. During it Montessori observed physical and psychological changes in children and developed materials, lessons and environment to respond to these new characteristics. The third plan extends from 12 to 18 years old and during it Montessori characterized it by the physical changes of adolescence and puberty but also psychological changes. The last plan extends from eighteen to twenty – four years. Montessori wrote comparatively little about this period and did not develop and educational program for the age. The US Patent Trademark Trial and Appeal Board ruled in 1967 that the term Montessori has generic or descriptive significance. At the United States therefore the use of the term is freely without giving any guarantee of how closely it at all a program applies Montessori’s work. Montessori schools have become popular when Montessori developed her theory and she came to believe that education had a role to play in the development of world peace.