Teachers are required to assign grades for student work. This is not always as straightforward as that statement makes it seem. It is relatively easy for teachers to score objective tests and result in a raw score on the test. Rubrics are further an excellent way to assign a raw score to a complicated assignments. The real issue comes in when assigning a letter grade to these raw scores. A number of methods exist that teachers can and do use when assigning grades. However, it is important to note that not all of these are valid or allowable in every situation. Schoolwide grading policy is a straightforward application of the school policy for raw scores. For example this is pretty clear guidance for teachers. However, this does not mean that teachers do not face dilemmas in case the school has published a policy that all tests with a raw score of 90-100 are assigned an 'A. However, this does not mean that teachers do not face dilemmas. For example they should look at the question and determine whether or not it should be thrown out when determining the final grade in case a teacher gives an exam which has a question that every student missed. 

Assigning letter grades

The teacher then uses the average of each assignment and creates a new average that is the semester or final grade for the course. The main benefit of this method is that it is straightforward. However, it can be less flexible than others. In method of the overall point system the teacher does not give each assignment a letter grade. Instead, they add all the possible points together for the class and then divide out creating an average. They can then assign a letter grade using the school or district policy. This allows teachers to assign different assignments different weights based on the number of possible points. For example, short assignments might be worth 10 points while more complicated could be worth 100 points. The more complicated assignments would have a greater bearing on the final grade in the overall scheme of things. A negative of this is that is can be hard for students to understand what their grade is in the class at any point in time. This method involves adding points to everyone's scores so that a reasonable number of A's are given. For example the teacher would add enough points onto all grades so that the highest score would now be an A in case on a given test the highest score would earn a C. This has the benefit of correcting for poorly constructed exam questions. Some teachers only use this on a case-by-case basis, maybe one time a year. However, if used all the time it could be seen as a means of 'padding' grades. Using a normal distribution is most often seen in university classes. The class average of mean is used to represent a true C grade and anyone that scores -1/2 to ½ standard deviation from the mean also gets assigned a C in this method.